108年上學期 表面電子光譜學

星期二 下午02:20-05:30 綜合教學館201室

Office E-mail
Instructor 薛景中 中研院應科中心411B shyue at gate.sinica.edu.tw
Textbook G. Friedbacher and H. Bubert, Surface and Thin Film Analysis: A Compendium of Principles, Instrumentation, and Applications, Second, Completely Revised and Enlarged Edition, 2011, Wiley-VCH. DOI: 10.1002/9783527636921
References
  • J.I. Goldstein, D.E. Newbury, P. Echlin, D.C. Joy, C.E. Lyman, E. Lifshin, L. Sawyer and J.R. Michael, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis, 4th ed., 2018, Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-6676-9
  • T.L Alford, L.C. Feldman and J.W. Mayer, Fundamentals of Nanoscale Film Analysis, 2007, Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-29261-8
  • J.C. Vickerman and I.S. Gillmore, Surface Analysis – The Principal Techniques, 2nd ed., 2009, John Wiley & Sons. DOI: 10.1002/9780470721582
  • The Surface Science Society of Japan, Compendium of Surface and Interface Analysis, 2018, Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-6156-1
  • J.C. Rivière and S. Myhra, Handbook of Surface and Interface Analysis: Methods for Problem-Solving, 2nd ed., 2009, CRC Press. ISBN: 978-0-8493-7558-3
  • E. Meyer, H.J. Hug, R. Bennewitz, Scanning Probe Microscopy – The Lab on a Tip, 2004, Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-09801-1
  • F. Ernst and M. Rühle, High-Resolution Imaging and Spectrometry of Materials, 2003, Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-07766-5
  • J. O’Connor, B.A. Sexton, R.St.C. Smart, Surface Analysis Methods in Materials Science, 2003, Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-05227-3
  • D.P. Woodruff, T.A. Delchar, Modern Techniques of Surface Science, 2nd ed., 1994, Cambridge. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511623172
  • Website http://www.shyue.idv.tw/electron_spectroscopy.php
    http://es.shyue.idv.tw/
    Workload Homework, 2 in total 20% each 40%
    Mid-Term Exam 30% 30%
    Final Exam 30% 30%
    Total* 100%
    * If the final class average falls below 70%, a curved scale will be used, with the class average set at or near 78%.

    Homework Policies:

    Homework will be due in class at the second class meeting after it is assigned. Late homework will be subject to a penalty of 10% per day unless an extension has been arranged with the instructor prior to the due date. No late homework will be accepted after a solution set has been made available.
    Homework must be legible, with questions answered in numerical order, and stapled if more than one page long. Please: no spiral-bound paper, or pages connected by folding the corners. Students may consult with one another on the homework, but what is handed in must be each student's original, individual work. Homework assignments (or portions thereof) from different students that appear to have been copied or that otherwise appear to be identical may be returned to all the submitters with zero credit.
    The purpose of the homework is to illustrate, apply, and reinforce key topics, not to serve as dry runs for exams.

    Exam Policies:

    Students may bring pencils or pens, erasers, calculators and straight edges to the tests. The mid-term and final exam will be open-book and open-notes. However, computers and communication devices in any form are not allowed. During the 3 h exam time, students are not allowed to discuss/consult with anyone and what is handed in must be each student's original, individual and hand-written (hand-drawing) work. If there is any hint that the content is copied, zero credit will be given.
    Mid-term exam will cover the lectures and reading assignments from the preceding parts of the course. The final exam will cover material from throughout the course. Some of the test questions will be similar to the homework problems in style (i.e., short-answer; calculations; explanations of concepts), but some questions will require the student to apply previous material to new situations.
    Unless for definitions, memorizing (complicate) equations is not required because one can always look it up. However, understanding the correlation between factors and the physics behind is crucial

    Syllabus

    Lecture topics, readings, and dates of homework assignments are subject to change and slides may be updated as we go along. Tests will cover the lecture content and the reading assignments.
    Week Date Lecture Topic Slide Recording
    1 9/10 Introduction: surface 20190913
    [PDF] [quicktime]
    00
    01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08
    2 9/17 Introduction: vacuum system, general considerations
    3 9/24 Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) 20190827
    [PDF] [quicktime]
    01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09
    4 10/1 PES: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, a.k.a. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis, ESCA)
    5 10/8 PES: Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS); Quantitative PES
    6 10/16 Sputter Depth Profile; Inverted Photoelectron Spectroscopy (iPES) 20191011
    [PDF] [quicktime]
    01 02
    7 10/22 Surface (2D) Crystallography; Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED); Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED); Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) 20190823
    [PDF] [quicktime]
    8 10/29 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
    Homework #1 assigned
    20190821
    [PDF] [quicktime]
    9 11/5 Mid-Term Exam;
    Homework #1 due
    10 11/12 SEM: low-vacuum operations
    11 11/19 SEM related techniques
    12 11/26 (Reflection) Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy ((R)EELS) 20190823
    [PDF] [quicktime]
    13 12/3 Electron Spectroscopic Imaging
    14 12/10 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) 20190821
    [PDF] [quicktime]
    15 12/17 Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM)
    16 12/24 Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA): X-ray Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (XWDS) 20190913
    [PDF] [quicktime]
    17 12/31 EPMA: X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (XEDS)
    Homework #2 assigned
    18 1/7 Final Exam;
    Homework #2 due

    Rubric

     

     

    Excellent

    Satisfactory

    Needs work

    Surface analysis and surface science

    Sensitivity as a function of spatial resolution

    • Sensitivity of different techniques
    • Strength of different techniques
    • Physical limitation
    • Number of atoms in solid

    None of the above

    Adsorption of molecules on surfaces

    • Collision rate
    • Thermal desorption techniques
    • Mean free path

    None of the above

    Vacuum system

    • Selection of vacuum components
    • Category of vacuum pumps
    • Vacuum gauges

    None of the above

    General considerations

    • Environment and utilities
    • Sample preparation

    None of the above

    Photoemission Spectroscopy (PES)

    X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)

    • Pass energy and operation of analyzer/detector
    • Spectral features in XPS
    • Final-state effect
    • Chemical shift
    • Quantitative analysis
    • Angle-resolved XPS
    • Photoelectric effect
    • Instrumentation
    • Definition of kinetic energy of photoelectron
    • Sampling depth
    • Position of Auger peak
    • Qualitative analysis
    • Depth profile

    None of the above

    Sputter Depth Profile

    • Cluster ion sputtering
    • Factor analysis
    • Ion sputtering
    • Preferential sputter and artifacts

    None of the above

    Ultra-violet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS)

    • Angle-resolved UPS
    • Valance band spectrum
    • Angle-integrated UPS
    • Work function determination

    None of the above

    Inverted Photoelectron Spectroscopy (iPES)

    • Conduction band spectrum
    • Difference from PES

    None of the above

    Electron Diffraction

    Surface crystallography

    • Ten 2D point groups
    • Seventeen 2D space groups
    • Five 2D lattices
    • Wood’s notation and matrix notation

    None of the above

    Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED)

    • Reciprocal lattice in 2D
    • Spot-Profile-Analysis LEED
    • I(V)
    • Electron diffraction
    • Ewald construction for LEED condition

    None of the above

    Reflective High-Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED)

    • Source and application of intensity oscillation
    • Ewald construction for RHEED condition

    None of the above

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)

    • Experimental Parameters
    • Origin of Kikuchi lines

    None of the above

    Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

    General SEM

    • Magnification and raster size
    • Instrumentation
    • Resolution limitation
    • Operation modes for objective lens
    • Signal generation
    • Depth of focus
    • Resolution vs. current
    • Kinetic energy of electrons

    None of the above

    SE and BSE imaging

    • Yield of SE and BSE
    • Low-vacuum and environmental SEM
    • Effect of instrumental parameters on the image
    • Signal processing
    • Classification of SE
    • Contrast in SE and BSE imaging
    • Operation of detectors

    None of the above

    Advanced operation

    • Channeling pattern
    • Time-resolved SEM
    • EBIC
    • CL

    None of the above

    (Reflection) Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (REELS)

    Inelastic scattering

    • Different types of inelastic scattering
    • Plasmon, phonon
    • Continuous energy loss

    None of the above

    Spectrum

    • Inner-shell ionization: ELNES and EXELFS
    • Quantitative EELS: partial ionization cross-section
    • Background substraction
    • Zero-loss peak
    • Low-loss region
    • High-loss region
    • Shape of adsorption edge
    • Qualitative EELS

    None of the above

    Electron Spectroscopic Image

    • Energy-filtered diffraction
    • Two- and three-window technique
    • Electron tomography
    • Zero-loss filtering
    • Electron Spectroscopic Imaging
    • Detection limit and spatial resolution of ESI

    None of the above

    Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
    Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM)

    • Two-electron de-excitation
    • Coster-Kronig transition
    • Operation mode of energy analyzer
    • Quantitative analysis
    • Nomenclature
    • Differential analysis
    • Chemical shift
    • Instrumentation
    • Charge consideration
    • Qualitative analysis
    • Schemes of depth-profile

    None of the above

    Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA)

    General

    • Inner-shell ionization by electron or high-energy particle
    • X-ray fluorescence yield
    • Interaction volume (lateral and depth distribution)
    • Effect of beam energy
    • Quantitative analysis (ZAF correction)
    • Characteristic x-ray and bremsstrahlung
    • Selection rule of x-ray generation
    • Qualitative analysis
    • Accuracy of standard-less quantification
    • X-ray imaging

    None of the above

    X-ray Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy

    • Selecting crystals for XWDS
    • Fully focused x-ray spectrometer
    • Maximizing signal intensity

    None of the above

    X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy

    • Principle of Si(Li) and SDD
    • Processing time and dead time ratio
    • Principle of pulse processing
    • Role of collimater
    • Detection solid angle
    • Energy resolution of XEDS
    • Artifacts in XEDS

    None of the above